Hangman Game - Feedback?
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Thread: Hangman Game - Feedback?

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Oct 2009
    Posts
    3

    Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Hi guys,

    I've been lurking around for a while but, having now learned the basics of C++, i thought i'd try and make a simple Hangman game using a text file for the list of possible words...

    So, basically, if you are bored and have a spare 10 minutes, would any of you kind gentlemen like to review my code and suggest areas where i can improve?

    I greatly appreciate ANY and all criticism, it's the best way to learn, even if you are mean to me ;D

    Code file + dictionary also attached

    Thanks in advance!

    P.S. Ignore the unnecessary headers - I was testing my memory ;P

    Code:
    #include <iostream>
    #include <cmath>
    #include <string>
    #include <time.h>
    #include <fstream>
    #include <cstring>
    #include <cctype>
    
    using namespace std;
    
    //Prototypes
    void print(int, char *p);
    bool check_letter(int, char, char *p, int *result);
    
    
    int main()
    {
     
     //Limit for incorrect guesses
     const int limit = 10;
     char wrongguesses[11] = {'0','0','0','0','0','0','0','0','0','0'};
     
     bool game_over = false;
     bool game_won = false;
     int attempts = 0;
     char actualword[50];
     char guessedword[50];
     string word;
     int lines = 0;
     int r = 0;
     int i = 0;
     int icount = 0;
     char guess;
     int position[10] = {-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1};
     bool foundletter = false;
     
     srand(time(NULL)); //Seed the random number generator with system time
     
     ifstream file("Words.txt"); //Open the words file
     
     if (!file.is_open()) //Check if file could not be opened
     {
      cout << "Dictionary file could not be opened!" << endl;
      system("pause");
      return 0;
     }
     
     //Count lines in the file
      while (getline(file,word))
     {
           lines++;
     }
     
     file.clear();  //Start again from the start of the file
     file.seekg(0);
     
     r = rand() % lines; //Randomise a line number to get a word from
     
     //Go to the random line number and extract the word
      while (i != r)
     {
           getline(file,word);
           i++;
     }
        
        strcpy (actualword, word.c_str()); //Copy the STRING into the CHARACTER ARRAY for use below
        
        int wordlength = strlen(actualword);
        
        //Fill the array with blanks of the correct length + spaces
        for (int i = 0; i < wordlength; i++)
        {
            if (actualword[i] == ' ')
              guessedword[i] = ' ';           
            else
              guessedword[i] = '_';
            }
        
        //Print output
        print(wordlength, guessedword);
        
        
        
        ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
        //Begin game loop
        ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
        
        while (attempts < limit && !game_won)
        {
              
              //List the incorrect attempts
              cout << endl << endl << "Incorrect Letters: ";
                       
              for (int i = 0; i < attempts; i++)
              {
                  cout << wrongguesses[i] << " ";
              }
                  
              cout << endl << endl << "Enter a letter [" << limit - attempts << " incorrect guesses remaining]: " ;
              cin >> guess;
              
              guess = tolower(guess);
                       
              //Check for the letter in the actual word
                       
              foundletter = check_letter(wordlength, guess, actualword, position);
                       
                                  
                       for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                       {
                         if (position[i] != -1)
                           guessedword[position[i]] = actualword[position[i]];
                       }
              
              //Check for underscores - if there are none then the word is complete (Game_Won)
              icount = 0;
                        
              for (int i = 0; i < wordlength; i++)
              {
                  if (guessedword[i] == '_')
                     icount++;
                  }
              
              if (icount == 0)
                 game_won = true;
              
              //Incorrect Letter          
              if (!foundletter)          
                 { 
    
                 //Check for the letter - if found then don't punish again
                 for (int i = 0; i < limit; i++)
                     {
                     if (wrongguesses[i] == guess)
                        {
                        goto nextguess;
                        }
                     }
                 //Add the incorrect letter to the incorrect array + increase count   
                 
                 wrongguesses[attempts] = guess;
                 attempts++;
                 nextguess:;
                 }
                 
                 print(wordlength, guessedword);
                 
        }
        
        ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
        //End game loop
        ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
        
        
        
        //Win or Lose
        
        if (game_won)
          {
           cout << endl << endl << "Cogratulations! You guessed the word with only " << attempts << " incorrect guesses!" << endl;
          }
        else
          {
               cout << endl << endl << "Game Over! Word: " << actualword << endl;
          }
               
            
        system("pause");
        return 0;
    }
    
    void print(int len, char *p)
    {
         system ("cls"); //Clear the screen
         cout << len << " characters" << endl << endl;
         for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
         {
             cout << *(p + i) << " ";
             }   
    }
    
    bool check_letter(int len, char c, char *p, int *result)
    {    
         bool found = false;
         int x = 0;
         for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
         {
             if (*(p + i) == c || *(p + i) == toupper(c))
             {
                result[x] = i;
                x++;
                found = true;
              }
         } 
         return found;
    }
    Attached Files Attached Files

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Apr 1999
    Posts
    27,418

    Re: Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Code:
    char actualword[50];
    char guessedword[50];
    string word;
    You should use string for all of the string variables and get rid of the char arrays. Then you don't need things like this.
    Code:
    strcpy (actualword, word.c_str()); //Copy the STRING into the CHARACTER ARRAY for use below
    Beginner or simple C++ programs that have things like strcpy() sprinkled in them IMO is a flawed program. This not only wouldn't be necessary, it is a hole in your program if word.c_str() is > 50 characters. Even if there are probably no words that have > 50 characters, you should get into the habit of using strings all the time, and only if there is a compelling reason to do so, you use arrays.
    Code:
    string actualword;
    string guessedword;
    string word;
    //...
    actualword = word; // no chance of buffer overrun.
    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Oct 2009
    Posts
    3

    Re: Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Hi Paul,

    Thanks very much for taking the time to help me out :]

    The reason i chose to use character arrays for the actual and guessed word is so that i could run through them and check / change single characters by just using a for loop to loop through the elements in the array.

    If i used strings for these 2 variables, what would be the best way of changing or checking individual letters in the string? and how could i refer to the character directly?

    Thanks again

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Apr 1999
    Posts
    27,418

    Re: Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Quote Originally Posted by Evo303 View Post
    Hi Paul,

    Thanks very much for taking the time to help me out :]

    The reason i chose to use character arrays for the actual and guessed word is so that i could run through them and check / change single characters by just using a for loop to loop through the elements in the array.
    You can do the same thing with string. If you couldn't, then std::string would be almost useless.
    Code:
    #include <string>
    //...
    int main()
    {
       std::string x = "abc123";
       x[0] = 'b';
    }
    The string variable can be used just like an array of char.

    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Oct 2009
    Posts
    1

    Re: Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Haha I like this. Not bad for someone just learning the basics.

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Oct 2009
    Posts
    3

    Re: Hangman Game - Feedback?

    Cheers Gonzo ;D

    Paul, thank you very much for your help, i've changed those character arrays to strings now and everything still works nicely

    Thanks again for your help.

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