Unitialized memory help
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Thread: Unitialized memory help

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Posts
    5

    Unitialized memory help

    Hey guys, can you tell me why my array isn't being initialized properly? At least, I think that's what's going on.

    This is for a school assignment. Couple caveats: Can't use vectors, lists, etc. The only #include's allowed are iostream, fstream & string. No error-checking required, although I'll probably add it if I have time.

    This compiles, but crashes when I grow the index array (member of books class) and try to assign values to the new book object.

    <code>
    #include <iostream>
    #include <string>
    #include <fstream>

    using namespace std;

    #define booklist "booklist.txt"

    class book
    {
    public:
    // Member functions
    // Constructors
    string isbn; // ISBN code
    string bc; // Book code
    string aln; // Author's last name
    string afn; // Author's first name
    string bt; // Book title
    string y; // Year of publication
    string price; // Price

    // Display all fields.
    void display()
    {
    cout << "Book code:\t" << bc << endl;
    cout << "ISBN Number:\t" << isbn << endl;
    cout << "Author's Last Name:\t" << aln << endl;
    cout << "Author's First Name:\t" << afn << endl;
    cout << "Book Title:\t" << bt << endl;
    cout << "Year of publication:\t" << y << endl;
    cout << "Price:\t\t" << price << endl << endl;
    }

    // Set all variables to empty values
    void init()
    {
    aln.clear();
    afn.clear();
    bt.clear();
    y.clear();
    price.clear();
    bc.clear();
    }
    };

    class books
    {
    public:
    // Member Functions
    // Constructors
    book* index;
    int bookCount;

    // Initialize the catalog as an array of size n
    void initarray(int n)
    {
    index = new book[n];
    bookCount = n;
    for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
    index[i].init();
    }
    }

    // Displays all records
    void displayAll()
    {
    for (int i=0;i<bookCount;i++)
    {
    index[i].display();
    }
    }

    // Grow the catalog's array
    void grow()
    {
    int n=bookCount;
    book* index2=new book[n+1];
    for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
    index2[i]=index[i];
    }
    delete[] index;
    book* index=new book[n+1];
    initarray(n+1);
    for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
    index[i]=index2[i];
    }
    bookCount=n+1;
    index[bookCount].bc=bookCount;
    delete[] index2;
    }

    // Shrink the catalog's array, removing the record of number n
    void del(int d)
    {
    int n=bookCount-1;
    book* index2=new book[n];
    int j=0;
    for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
    if (n==d)
    {
    j=1;
    }
    index2[i]=index[i+j];
    }

    book* index = new book[n];
    for (int i=0;i<n-1;i++)
    {
    index[i]=index2[i];
    }
    bookCount=n-1;
    delete index2;
    }

    };

    void intro(); // Prototype declaration
    int getOption(); // Prototype declaration
    void loadfile(books&);
    void addBook(books&);
    string popTabdelim(string);


    int main()
    {
    books catalog;
    bool q=false;
    loadfile(catalog);
    intro();
    do
    {
    int o=getOption();
    switch (o)
    {
    case 1:
    {
    addBook(catalog);
    break;
    }
    case 2:
    {
    break;
    }
    case 3:
    {

    break;
    }
    case 4:
    {
    catalog.displayAll();
    break;
    }
    case 5:
    {
    break;
    }
    case 6:
    {
    //savecatalog();
    q=true;
    break;
    }
    }
    }
    while (!q);
    return 0;
    }

    void intro()
    {
    cout << "\nWelcome to Jason Black's Book Cataloging system!\n\n";
    }

    int getOption()
    {
    int o; //Stores the user's choice.

    cout << "Available options:\n";
    cout << "\t1. Add a new book" << endl;
    cout << "\t2. Find a book" << endl;
    cout << "\t3. Delete a book" << endl;
    cout << "\t4. Display all books" << endl;
    cout << "\t5. Save changes" << endl;
    cout << "\t6. Quit" << endl << endl;
    cout << "Option:\t";
    cin >> o;
    cout << endl;
    return o;
    }

    void loadfile(books& catalog)
    {
    string line;
    int n=0;
    ifstream bookfile;

    bookfile.open(booklist);
    while (!bookfile.eof())
    {
    getline(bookfile,line);
    n++;
    }

    catalog.initarray(n);
    catalog.bookCount=n;
    bookfile.close();

    bookfile.open(booklist);
    for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
    getline(bookfile,line,'\n');
    catalog.index[i].bc=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].isbn=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].aln=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].afn=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].bt=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].y=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    line=popTabdelim(line);
    catalog.index[i].price=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    }
    }

    string popTabdelim(string line)
    {
    int tabloc=line.find('\t');
    string popped=line.substr(tabloc+1,line.length()-tabloc);
    return popped;
    }

    void addBook(books& catalog)
    {
    catalog.grow();
    book& b = catalog.index[catalog.bookCount];
    cout << "Adding a new book.\n";
    cout << "ISBN Number:\t";
    cin >> b.isbn;
    cout << "Author's Last Name:\t";
    cin >> b.aln;
    cout << "Author's First Name:\t";
    cin >> b.afn;
    cout << "Book Title:\t";
    cin >> b.bt;
    cout << "Year of Publication:\t";
    cin >> b.y;
    cout << "Price:\t\t";
    cin >> b.price;
    }
    </code>

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Apr 1999
    Posts
    27,426

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Please re-edit your post to use proper code tags, Your code is unreadable without them.

    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie

  3. #3
    Lindley is offline Elite Member Power Poster
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Code:
    #define booklist "booklist.txt"
    I don't recommend doing this. If you need a constant, it's better to do:
    Code:
    const string booklist = "boostlist.txt";
    because that makes the constant substitution happen at compile time rather than preprocessor time, which means if there is a problem, you'll probably get a more useful error message.

    Now, to your actual problem....
    Code:
    void grow()
    {
        int n=bookCount;
        book* index2=new book[n+1];
        for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
        {
            index2[i]=index[i];
        }
        delete[] index;
        book* index=new book[n+1];
        initarray(n+1);
        for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
        {
            index[i]=index2[i];
        }
        bookCount=n+1;
        index[bookCount].bc=bookCount;
        delete[] index2;
    }
    There are actually several "problems" with this function, although only one is going to actual crash things. The others are efficiency issues.

    First and foremost, this line looks very suspicious:
    Code:
    index[bookCount].bc=bookCount;
    I suspect that's an out-of-bounce array access. Probably what's crashing you.

    Almost as important, this function calls new[] three times, but delete[] only twice. Of course only two calls to new[] are made in this immediate code----actually only one is needed, we'll get to that momentarily----but you also call initarray(), which itself calls new[]. Therefore, you have a memory leak.

    Now, to simple efficiency. In order to make an array larger, you have to:
    1) Create a new, larger array.
    2) Copy or move existing elements from the old array to the new one.
    3) Delete the old array.

    What you're actually doing is:
    1) Create a new, larger array.
    2) Copy all existing elements from the old array to the new one.
    3) Delete the old array.
    4) Create a second larger array.
    5) Copy all the elements to the third array.
    6) Delete the second array.

    There's some extra copying going on here which isn't needed. After the "delete[] index;" line, only one more statement is needed to finish the logic (not including logic specific to your problem; I'm talking about array copying in general). Most of the second half of the function as-implemented is unnecessary.

    Notice I said "copy or move" above. This probably won't be relevant to your class, but just FYI, C++0x has just introduced "move semantics". They're something you ought to know about even if the compiler used in your class is too old to support them; I suggest reading up.

    Another efficiency point: each time the array is grown, you resize it only one element larger. From a heap manager perspective, this is actually a worst-case scenario, and you definitely can do better. What you need to do is add another variable to your class, bookCapacity, which is the actual size of the array as allocated. While bookCount would represent the logical size of the array, you would have no need to do an actual reallocation unless bookCount == bookCapacity when you try to grow(). In that case, typically what is done is you double bookCapacity, reallocate, and then you will again not have to reallocate for several more grow() calls.

    Final observation is regarding your use of init() functions. Really, you ought to be doing all the init() logic in constructors, or at least make the init() function private and only call it from constructors; this would make things a lot easier, since other classes would never need to wonder whether they need to init() an object of your class before using it. As it happens, though, book::init() doesn't actually do anything that the default book constructor isn't doing anyway, so it isn't even necessary unless you want to clear and re-use an already existing book object.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Apr 1999
    Posts
    27,426

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    No error-checking required, although I'll probably add it if I have time.
    Therein lies the rub -- to check for errors using coding like this will make your current code even larger and more hard to maintain and debug. If you learnbed proper container classes, this extra code to check is minimized.
    This compiles, but crashes
    Compiling correctly has no bearng on whether the program will run correctly. Compiling successfully just means you have no syntax errors -- it doesn't tell you whether the program will work the way you want it to.

    The first thing is that you use the wrong form of "delete". If you use "new[]", you must use "delete[]", not "delete". That's the first thing you need to fix.

    Second, you could have coded a general dynamic array class yourself, and use that instead. Then you isolate the problem to the dynamic array class, and not have to micromanage this array inside of your main application.

    Third, you posted a lot of other code that has absolutely nothing to do with adding a book to a dynamic array. You should just have a single function to add a book, and call it in a simple main() program. That is how you were (are) to approach writing such a program -- you don't approach this by writing the whole thing first. Once you are convinced that adding a book works with some dummy data, then you add it to the main app, and not before.

    Last, have you used a debugger to debug the program? If not, I suggest you learn to use the debugger that comes with your compiler.

    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Posts
    5

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    <quote>
    There's some extra copying going on here which isn't needed.</quote>

    How do you avoid the extra copying? Define books.index as a pointer to something like "index1", and when the index grows change the pointer to "index2" and delete index1?

    <quote>First and foremost, this line looks very suspicious:</quote>

    It actually crashes when I try to assign values to the new book in the index array. It gets past the grow() function alright. Sometimes it crashes assigning the ISBN, sometimes the Author's Last name, sometimes the Author's First name...it's like it doesn't have enough memory assigned to it.

    Thanks for the help!

  6. #6
    Lindley is offline Elite Member Power Poster
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by jdblack View Post
    <quote>
    There's some extra copying going on here which isn't needed.</quote>

    How do you avoid the extra copying? Define books.index as a pointer to something like "index1", and when the index grows change the pointer to "index2" and delete index1?
    In the middle of the function, you've got a filled array of the new size pointed to by index2. You've already deleted the array pointed to by index, so....all you really need to do is tell index to point at the array you've already got. That's it.

    Just because you happened to point the local index2 at the new array when you allocated it doesn't mean that can't become the class's internal array later on with a bit of pointer assignment.

    It actually crashes when I try to assign values to the new book in the index array. It gets past the grow() function alright. Sometimes it crashes assigning the ISBN, sometimes the Author's Last name, sometimes the Author's First name...it's like it doesn't have enough memory assigned to it.
    When it crashes doesn't always tell the whole story. All you know is that something got corrupted at some point prior to the crash. If you're lucky the problem will be right at the crash location, but that isn't always the case.

  7. #7
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by jdblack View Post
    <quote>
    These forums use square ([]) brackets, not angle brackets (look at your "<quote>"). You do the same thing with the code tags, you replaced the square brackets with the angle brackets.

    Second, you didn't address fixing the usage of the wrong form of "delete" in your code.

    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie
    Last edited by Paul McKenzie; August 9th, 2010 at 02:40 PM.

  8. #8
    Join Date
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    1,689

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Code:
    book* index=new book[n+1];
    This is not initializing the class's index variable, this is creating a new array which is local to the function. You want:

    Code:
    index = new book[n + 1];
    or
    Code:
    this -> index = new book[n + 1]
    These are identical, the latter is more specific and easier for other people to read, but the former is more common.

    White space is ignored by the compiler and does not slow down compilation, and makes everything much easier to read. It's a good habit to get into.

  9. #9
    Lindley is offline Elite Member Power Poster
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by ninja9578 View Post
    You want:
    Good catch on the local, but that's not actually what he wants. The allocation should first be assigned to a local, then the copies made, and only then should the new array be assigned back into the object.

  10. #10
    Join Date
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Oh, I didn't really look at the context, I just breezed through it due to lack of formatting. My mistake.

  11. #11
    Join Date
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by Paul McKenzie View Post
    The first thing is that you use the wrong form of "delete". If you use "new[]", you must use "delete[]", not "delete". That's the first thing you need to fix.
    Fixed, although this wasn't in any code currently being executed. I've only tried using the grow function right now, and it used "delete[]".

    There's so much to respond to that I don't know where to start. :P

    First and foremost, this line looks very suspicious:

    Code:
    index[bookCount].bc=bookCount;
    I took it out and replaced it with a static reference to the correct value, and nothing changed in the crash behavior.

    In the middle of the function, you've got a filled array of the new size pointed to by index2. You've already deleted the array pointed to by index, so....all you really need to do is tell index to point at the array you've already got.
    How do I point index to a new object? I think I know how to do it for a normal variable, but I don't know the syntax for a constructor of a class.

    This is not initializing the class's index variable, this is creating a new array which is local to the function. You want:


    Code:
    index = new book[n + 1];
    Changed it.

    Second, you could have coded a general dynamic array class yourself, and use that instead.
    Point taken, but I don't feel up to starting over at this point.

    Last, have you used a debugger to debug the program?
    Yes, and the output wasn't meaningful enough to me. This is the line it breaks on -

    " static void __CLRCALL_OR_CDECL assign(_Elem& _Left, const _Elem& _Right)
    { // assign an element
    _Left = _Right;
    }"

    Here's the current code after the recommended tweaks, same behavior.

    Code:
    #include <iostream>
    #include <string>
    #include <fstream>
    
    using namespace std;
    
    #define booklist "booklist.txt"
    
    class book
    {
    	public:
    		// Member functions
    		// Constructors
    		string isbn;	// ISBN code
    		string bc;		// Book code
    		string aln;		// Author's last name
    		string afn;		// Author's first name
    		string bt;		// Book title
    		string y;		// Year of publication
    		string price;	// Price
    
    		// Display all fields.
    		void display()
    		{
    			cout << "Book code:\t" << bc << endl;
    			cout << "ISBN Number:\t" << isbn << endl;
    			cout << "Author's Last Name:\t" << aln << endl;
    			cout << "Author's First Name:\t" << afn << endl;
    			cout << "Book Title:\t" << bt << endl;
    			cout << "Year of publication:\t" << y << endl;
    			cout << "Price:\t\t" << price << endl << endl;
    		}
    
    		// Set all variables to empty values
    		void init()
    		{
    			aln.clear();
    			afn.clear();
    			bt.clear();
    			y.clear();
    			price.clear();
    			bc.clear();
    		}
    };
    
    class books
    	{
    	public:
    		// Member Functions
    		// Constructors
    		book* index;
    		int bookCount;
    
    		// Initialize the catalog as an array of size n
    		void initarray(int n)
    		{
    			index = new book[n];
    			bookCount = n;
    		}
    
    		// Displays all records
    		void displayAll()
    		{
    			for (int i=0;i<bookCount;i++)
    			{
    				index[i].display();
    			}
    		}
    
    		// Grow the catalog's array
    		void grow()
    		{
    			int& n=bookCount;
    			book* index2=new book[n+1];
    			for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    			{
    				index2[i]=index[i];
    			}
    			delete[] index;
    			index = new book[n + 1];
    			for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    			{
    				index[i]=index2[i];
    			}
    			bookCount=n+1;
    			index[bookCount].bc=bookCount;
    			delete[] index2;
    		}
    
    		// Shrink the catalog's array, removing the record of number n
    		void del(int d)
    		{
    			int n=bookCount-1;
    			book* index2=new book[n];
    			int j=0;
    			for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    			{
    				if (n==d)
    				{
    					j=1;
    				}
    				index2[i]=index[i+j];
    			}
    			delete[]index;
    			book* index = new book[n];
    			for (int i=0;i<n-1;i++)
    			{
    				index[i]=index2[i];
    			}
    			bookCount=n-1;
    			delete[] index2;
    		}
    
    	};
    
    void intro();					// Prototype declaration
    int getOption();				// Prototype declaration
    void loadfile(books&);
    void addBook(books&);
    string popTabdelim(string);
    
    
    int main()
    {
    	books catalog;
    	bool q=false;
    	loadfile(catalog);
    	intro();
    	do
    	{
    		int o=getOption();
    		switch (o)
    		{	
    			case 1:
    				{
    					addBook(catalog);
    					break;
    				}
    			case 2:
    				{
    					break;
    				}
    			case 3:
    				{
    					
    					break;
    				}
    			case 4:
    				{
    					catalog.displayAll();
    					break;
    				}
    			case 5:
    				{
    					break;
    				}
    			case 6:
    				{
    					//savecatalog();
    					q=true;
    					break;
    				}
    		}
    	}
    	while (!q);
    	return 0;
    }
    
    void intro()
    {
    	cout << "\nWelcome to Jason Black's Book Cataloging system!\n\n";
    }
    
    int getOption()
    {
    	int o;			//Stores the user's choice.
    
    	cout << "Available options:\n";
    	cout << "\t1.  Add a new book" << endl;
    	cout << "\t2.  Find a book" << endl;
    	cout << "\t3.  Delete a book" << endl;
    	cout << "\t4.  Display all books" << endl;
    	cout << "\t5.  Save changes" << endl;
    	cout << "\t6.  Quit" << endl << endl;
    	cout << "Option:\t";
    	cin >> o;
    	cout << endl;
    	return o;
    }
    
    void loadfile(books& catalog)
    {
    	string line;
    	int n=0;
    	ifstream bookfile;
    
    	bookfile.open(booklist);
    	while (!bookfile.eof())
    	{
    		getline(bookfile,line);
    		n++;
    	}
    	
    	catalog.initarray(n);
    	catalog.bookCount=n;
    	bookfile.close();
    	
    	bookfile.open(booklist);
    	for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
    	{
    		getline(bookfile,line,'\n');
    		catalog.index[i].bc=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].isbn=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].aln=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].afn=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].bt=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].y=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    		line=popTabdelim(line);
    		catalog.index[i].price=line.substr(0,line.find('\t'));
    	}
    }
    
    string popTabdelim(string line)
    {
    	int tabloc=line.find('\t');
    	string popped=line.substr(tabloc+1,line.length()-tabloc);
    	return popped;
    }
    
    void addBook(books& catalog)
    {
    	catalog.grow();
    	book& b = catalog.index[catalog.bookCount];
    	cout << "Adding a new book.\n";
    	cout << "ISBN Number:\t";
    	cin >> b.isbn;
    	cout << "Author's Last Name:\t";
    	cin >> b.aln;
    	cout << "Author's First Name:\t";
    	cin >> b.afn;
    	cout << "Book Title:\t";
    	cin >> b.bt;
    	cout << "Year of Publication:\t";
    	cin >> b.y;
    	cout << "Price:\t\t";
    	cin >> b.price;
    }

  12. #12
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
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    5

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    I bypassed the error by reconstructing the books object rather than attempting to change the book array inside the books object.

    Thanks for the help everyone, got some good pointers for other less-critical errors.

    Edit: And I just realized I never attached a booklist.txt...sorry about that! Probably would've helped if you all could've seen the error...
    Last edited by jdblack; August 9th, 2010 at 11:29 PM.

  13. #13
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    Apr 1999
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    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by jdblack View Post
    I took it out and replaced it with a static reference to the correct value, and nothing changed in the crash behavior.
    Instead of that, do you know why that line is suspicious? That is how you solve problems -- you identify why the code causes problems before creating code that basically doesn't do anything. You can't just throw code at a problem and hope it works without knowing what is the exact problem.

    The reason why that line doesn't work is that when you allocate n items, the items are indexed from 0 to n-1. You obviously have a memory overwrite on that line, since you allocated n items and are using n to reference an item, when items can only be referenced from 0 to n-1.

    Given that, how do you solve it? You obviously have an indexing problem, where the index is going out of bounds. So you solve it by making sure you don't index items out of bounds.

    The general problem with your code is writing too much at one time without testing each portion first. The "grow" function should have been fully tested prior to placing it in the middle of the program. Growing an array should be a basic, fundamental piece of the program that needs to be isolated.

    Also, whether you're aware of it or not, C++ doesn't work the way you believe it does, where as soon as your code makes a mistake, you see the error at runtime. When you access invalid entries in an array, overwrite memory, etc. a C++ program need not crash immediately. It can silently keep running until a crash finally occurs, or it could run all the way without any visible problems. Unlike other computer languages, where you are immediately informed of any illegal accesses (i.e. Java, C#, etc.), C++ doesn't afford you this "luxury".
    Code:
    Yes, and the output wasn't meaningful enough to me.  This is the line it breaks on -
    
    "	static void __CLRCALL_OR_CDECL assign(_Elem& _Left, const _Elem& _Right)
    		{	// assign an element
    		_Left = _Right;
    		}"
    That line is part of the runtime, meaning your code did something illegal. This is what I mean -- that line of code is where your program finally breaks down -- it isn't where the problem originated.
    Here's the current code after the recommended tweaks, same behavior.
    Again, have you used the debugger to debug your program? That is exactly what everyone here would need to do to debug your program, so you should be doing the same thing.

    Regards,

    Paul McKenzie

  14. #14
    Lindley is offline Elite Member Power Poster
    Join Date
    Oct 2007
    Location
    Fairfax, VA
    Posts
    10,888

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by jdblack View Post
    How do I point index to a new object? I think I know how to do it for a normal variable, but I don't know the syntax for a constructor of a class.
    Observe:

    Code:
    // some time ago
    int *arr = new int[5];
    
    // now
    int *arr2 = new int[10];
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
        arr2[i] = arr[i];
    delete[] arr;
    arr = arr2;
    
    // some time later
    delete[] arr;

  15. #15
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Posts
    1,689

    Re: Unitialized memory help

    Quote Originally Posted by Lindley View Post
    Code:
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
        arr2[i] = arr[i];
    Why not:
    Code:
    memmove(&arr2[0], &arr[0], 5 * sizeof(int));
    Last edited by ninja9578; August 10th, 2010 at 09:19 AM. Reason: spelling error

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